Montenegro (meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, and Albania to the south-east. Its capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital (prijestonica).
In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. After passing through the control of several regional powers and the Ottoman Empire in the ensuing centuries, it became a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1918, which was succeeded by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945.
After the Breakup of Yugoslavia in 1992, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, although its status as the legal successor to Yugoslavia was opposed by other former republics and denied by the United Nations; in 2003, it renamed itself Serbia and Montenegro. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Montenegro will join NATO June 5, 2017.
Montenegro is located in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula with territorial access to the Adriatic Sea. It covers a territory of 13.812 km². It is bordered by Serbia to the north-east, the Croatian to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Albania to the southeast, while it's separated from Italy by the Adriatic Sea. Although it is classified in the group of the Adriatic and the Mediterranean countries, Montenegro is also a mountainous country in which areas above 1,000 meters above sea level covers about 60.5% of the country territory.
Montenegro has a Mediterranean climate, with hot dry summers and relatively mild winters. Beside latitude and altitude, the presence of the large water surfaces ( the Adriatic Sea, Lake Skadar ), deep-sea intrusion into the mainland ( Bay of Kotor ), as well as mountain chains like Durmitor, Bjelasica and Prokletije, significantly influence the climate of Montenegro. Large water surfaces, the height and the direction of the coastal mountains and the relief of the land locally and regionally, influence it's climate, creating a big difference on very small area between coastal climate and climate of high mountain region with numerous transitional climate forms between them.The average annual air temperature is 4.6 ° C ( the area of Zabljak at an altitude of 1450 m ), to 15.8 °C at the coast of Montenegro.
Podgorica, which is located at 44.5 m above sea level, has the average summer temperatures around 33 °C.
The policy in the sector of tourism in Montenegro is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism. Tourism is the most important economic area in Montenegro. Montenegro attracts a great number of tourists annually. The number was impressive in 2013: nearly 1.5 million, according to the survey conducted by Monstat. Tourism in Montenegro is being reaffirmed in recent years, followed by a series of infrastructure projects, aimed at reinventing Montenegro as an elite tourist destination in the future, for tourists from all over the world, especially from the region and other European countries, particularly the countries of the European Union .
Although Montenegro is relatively a small country (area - 13,800 km2), it is characterized by a landscape of true beauty, rightly described as "Wild Beauty", with the diversity that is hard to surpass: high mountains and deep canyons, broad plains, rivers, lakes and picturesque coast alternate with each other. The vegetation is rich in species, depending on the altitude. Culturally, some areas are rich with three different traditions of cultural heritage. Montenegro, as a tourist destination, can be divided into six clusters, which differ according to the characteristics of the landscape and culture:
• The steep, rocky coast from Luštica to Ulcinj, with large number of beaches, represents the center of tourism in the country and the primary destination for tourists who come to Montenegro .
• Ulcinj, with the longest sandy beach on the eastern coast, Ada Bojana and Valdanos and rich history, represents great potential for the development of Montenegrin tourism.
• The Bay of Kotor, surrounded by mountains and distinctive in its historical significance and cultural heritage, is unique in the Mediterranean.
• Old Royal Capital Cetinje and Skadar Lake, with historical significance, as well as the diversity of flora and fauna, are of great importance for the development of tourism.
• Mountain region of Durmitor and Sinjajevina, together with the canyon of Tara and a national park, represent a challenge for tourists both in the winter and in the summer.
• Mountain region of Bjelasica, Komovi and Prokletije, with two national parks, mountains and religious tourism, represent both natural and cultural treasury.
The coast and the mountains, because of their proximity, are regarded as a whole, which can be characterized as the main comparative advantage of Montenegro in the wide variety of the competition in the tourism market. With all the other benefits, climate is a crucial prerequisite for the successful development of tourism. Montenegro has a pleasant summer climate, similar to Sardinia, the French Riviera or Majorca, and is ideal for bathing and summer tourism. Winter rainfall is heavy on the coast, while the mountains are suitable for all kinds of winter sports. Durmitor and Bjelasica offer the best conditions for winter tourism, as well as Prokletije, where snow can be found at an altitude 1.650/1.750 m for at least 80-90 days a year. Municipality of Budva with Bečići is currently, qualitatively and quantitatively, the most important tourist resort on the coast.
Budva is closely followed by Bar and Herceg Novi. According to the projections of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, Tivat , Luštica peninsula and marina "Porto Montenegro" and Ulcinj, because of its potential in Ada Bojana, the Long Beach and Valdanos, will experience rapid growth by 2020. and become primary tourist destinations. Thanks primarily to its natural beauty and favorable geographic and other climatic conditions , and policies carried out by the relevant authorities , as well as the efforts and achievements by providers of tourist services, in a relatively short period of time, Montenegro arose comparing to the competitor destinations in the Mediterranean, reaching the international level of service quality and exceeding the expectations when it comes to the evaluation and protection of natural resources, sustainability and innovation.